Contratos Administrativos: Contrato de concesión de obras y servicios públicos: nulidad; prestaciones realizadas y no retribuidas

Páginas15-112
Contratos Administrativos:
Contrato de concesión de obras y ser-
vicios públicos: nulidad; prestaciones
realizadas y no retribuidas.
NF
Con nota a fallos de Pedro J. J. Coviello - pág. 36
1 – Por lo dispuesto en el art. 280 del cód. procesal
civil y comercial de la Nación, cabe considerar in-
admisible el recurso extraordinario interpuesto
contra la sentencia que hizo lugar a la pretensión
de pago de sumas equitativas por las prestaciones
realizadas por la actora a la Administraci ón ac-
cionada, en virtud de un contrato de concesión de
obras y servicios públicos anulado, que no fueron
retribuidas.
2 – Cuando el vicio radica en un elemento esencial
del acto administrativo, como es en el caso la ob-
servancia de las formas establecidas por las leyes
y los reglamentos en funció n del interés público,
nos hallamos ante una nulidad absoluta. Si bien en
el ámbito del derecho privado la nulidad absoluta
no puede ser alegada por el que ha ejecutado el
acto, sabiendo o debiendo saber el vicio que lo in-
validaba (doctrina de los arts. 1047, 1049 y 1164,
cód. civil), en materia de derecho administrativo
tal limitación no es aplicable, en virtud de impe-
dirlo el “interés público” a satisfacer por la Admi-
nistración Pública con su actividad 89@:5@@C89@5
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3 – Dado que el contrato de concesión de obras y
servicios públicos motivo de autos carece de las
formas prescriptas por la ley que hacen a su vali-
dez y regularidad, es nulo de nulidad absoluta, en
tanto lesiona directamente al “interés público” que
dichas formas pretenden salvaguardar. Por lo cual,
la resolución culpable imputada a la Administra-
ción demandada no puede ser admitida y, en con-
secuencia, debe desestimarse la acción de indem-
nización de daños por incumplimiento contractual
planteada por la actora, así como el cobro de fac-
turas pretendido, pues la admisibilidad de tales
pretensiones se encuentra condicionada a la vali-
dez del aludido c ontrato. En efecto , la nulidad
extingue los derechos que se hubieran creado o
transmitido en virtud del acto nulo o anulado por
sentencia del fallo 89@:5@@C89@5&=JG5@5%
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4 – A pesar de que el contrato de obras y servicios
públicos motivo de autos es nulo de nulidad abso-
luta por carecer de las formas prescriptas por la
ley, lo cierto es que la actora realizó trabajos para
la dem andada en virtud del mismo, po r lo cua l,
dado que dichos trabajos no pueden ser conside-
rados una liberalidad en favor de la Administra-
ción, corresponde reconocer a su favor una com-
pensación, la cual
encuentra fundamento en la nu-
lidad o en la ineficacia del negocio, sin necesidad
de acudir a la figura del enriquecimiento sin causa
y a la 57H=C=BF9AJ9FGC, que es siempre subsidia-
ria 89@:5@@C89@5&=JG5@5%
5 – En el caso, coinciden las pautas para determinar
el monto que debe reconocerse a la contratista en
concepto de restitución derivada de la nulidad del
contrato de obras y servicios públicos que la unía
a la accionada, ya sea que su valoración resulte de
las pautas del art. 1052 del cód. civil o de la teoría
del enriquecimiento sin causa, pues norma del art.
1052 del cód. civil no es sino la recepción, en ma-
teria de nulidades, de la teoría del enriquecimiento
sin causa, y, sobre esa base, cabe declarar el dere-
cho a reclamar el precio o el valor de lo ejecutado
o entregado en beneficio de la Administración, en
la med ida en qu e los tra bajos ejecutados por la
contratista fueron ordenados por la comitente y re-
portaron a ésta un beneficio cuya prestación debe
ser reconocida 89@:5@@C89 @5&=JG5@5%
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6 – Dictada la sentencia anulatoria del contrato de
obra pública motivo de autos, dado que el mismo
ha tenido algún efecto, a fin de que las partes sean
puestas en la situación que habría tenido si no se
hubiera cumplido el acto, tienen que restituirse las
prestaciones ejecu tadas, hasta dejar las cos as
como ante s de dicha ejecución. Sin embargo, no
ofreciendo ni pudiendo restituir la demandada las
prestaciones realizadas por la actora y rigiendo a
JURISPRUDENCIA
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ese respecto lo normado por el art. 1201 del cód.
civil, aplicable por analogía al caso, la restitución
aludida se limitará al reembolso de las sumas in-
vertidas por la actora por trabajos no remunera-
dos, que incrementaron el patrimonio municipal,
causando un correlativo empobrecimiento a la ac-
cionante 89@:5@@C89@5&=JG5@5%
7 – Si bien es cierto que, en otra oportunidad, esta
sala apli có directamente la teoría del enriqueci-
miento sin causa, para fundar el derecho del con-
tratista de obra a reclamar el pago de las presta-
ciones efectuadas a favor de la Administración en
virtud de un contrato luego declarado nulo, no ha-
ciéndose referencia a las restituciones derivadas de
la nulidad del acto administrativo, no lo es menos
que, en el caso, más allá del encuadre en las figu-
ras jurídicas mencionadas (restitución por la nuli-
dad, daño al interés negativo, enriquecimiento sin
causa), el monto que de be reconocerse a la con-
tratista se limitará al reembolso de las sumas in-
vertidas por ella por trabajos no remunerados, que
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bierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires s/ordinario (C.347.
XLVIII-R.H.).
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HF585GM5F7Elena I. Highton de Nolasco.
– Carlos S. Fayt. – Enrique S. Petracchi. – Car-
men M. Argibay.
Contratos Administrativos:
Contrato de locación de obra intelec-
tual con relación a la obra pública:
prestaciones realizadas sin respaldo
contractual; pago; procedencia; enri-
quecimiento sin causa; aplicación en
materia administrativa.
NF
Con nota a fallo
1 – Por lo dispuesto en el art. 280 del cód. procesal
civil y comercial de la Nación, cabe considerar in-
admisible el recurso extraordinario interpuesto
contra la sentencia que, sobre la base de la figura
del enriquecimiento sin causa, resolvió que la ad-
ministración demandada debía abonar a la actora
los trabajos por ella realizados, aun cuando el re-
clamo no tuviese respaldo contrac tual, por no
haber sido estos autorizados reglamentariamente
por autoridad competente dentro de las estipula-
ciones contractuales 89@ :5@@C89 @5&=JG5@5
%.
2 – Si bien es cierto que los trabajos –cuyo cobro se
reclama– no fueron aut orizados reglamentaria-
mente por autoridad competente dentro de las esti-
pulaciones contractuales, no lo es menos que, sin
perjuicio de las responsabilidades funcionales en
que pudieron haber incurrido los autorizantes, la
accionante cumplió con exigencias de funcionarios
estatales que la pudieron llevar a creer que las ta-
reas realizadas se rían retribuidas, por lo cual ra-
zones de equidad, y más allá de no tratarse de una
contratación, llevan a concluir que deben ser con-
cretadas a través de la figura del enriquecimiento
sin causa, aplicable también en materia adminis-
trativa; debe, en consec uencia, la acci onada ser
condenada al pago del beneficio obtenido con los
servicios prestados 89@:5@@C89@5&=JG5@5%
.
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3 – En nuestro sistema, de corte netamente causalista,
la acción de enriquecimiento sin causa no procede
cuando el desplazamiento patr imonial tiene su
razón de ser en un contrato, aunque éste –como en
el caso– resulte nulo, anulable o ineficaz, por no ha-
berse seguido las normas de contratación estable-
cidas y haber intervenido funcionarios no compe-
tentes para ello; en tales supuestos la obligación de
restituir encuentra fundamento en la nulidad o en
la ineficacia del negocio, sin necesidad de acudir a
la figura del enriquecimiento sin causa y a la 57H=C
=BF9A J9FGC que es siempre subsidiaria. Por lo
cual, la restitución de lo invertido por el actor –lo-
cador de obra pública– resulta consecuencia obli-
gada de la ineficacia del negocio, pues si las partes
no estuviesen obligadas a restituir se llegaría al ab-
surdo resultado de que un contrato que el propio de-
recho objetivo declara ineficaz a la postre deviniera
eficaz 89@:5@@C89@5&=JG5@5% JCHC
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4 – Aun cuando la distinción entre la devolución a la
actora de lo invertido por ella a raíz de un contrato
de obra pública, luego declarado nulo, derivada de
la nulidad del acto y la derivada por aplicación del
enriquecimiento sin causa parece carecer de con-
secuencias prácticas para la solución del caso,
pues ambas son acciones de reintegro y las pautas
para la fijación de las sumas a reintegrar en el caso
coinciden, el monto fijado para compensar el enri-
quecimiento sin causa parece insuficiente a la luz
de los valores acreditados para contratos simila-
res, que resultan de las constancias agregadas, cir-
cunstancia que es consecuencia de la carencia de
bases precisas para su determinación, por lo cual,
para no afectar las garantías del debido proceso,
cabe diferir la determinación del monto de la con-
dena para la etapa de ejecución de sentencia, me-
diante un incidente de determinación de dicha can-
tidad y sobre la base de una ampliación del informe
contable, de prueba informativa, de un informe pe-
ricial o de las medidas que soliciten lo s conten-
dientes, que permitan contar con bases ciertas para
establecer la suma que corresponde reconocer a
favor de la empresa actora 89@:5@@C89@5&=J
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826 – CS, noviembre 28-2013. – Ingeniería y Asistencia
Técnica Argentina S.A. de Servicios Profesionales c. Muni-
cipalidad de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires s/cobro de pesos
(I.33.XLVIII-R.H.).
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Instituciones de Derecho Privado, Obligaciones
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7CB=BH9F9G9G@=EI=858CG 9B@5 :CFA59GH56@97=85
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*9;SGHF9G9BCH=:SEI9G9M89JIR@J5G9[ Elisa
M. Díaz De Vivar. – Fernando Posse Saguier. –
Mabel De los Santos 9B8=G=89B7=5D5F7=5@ +97
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Vistos @CG5IHCG\*97IFGC89
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DFC7989B7=5
Considerando
Sumario: I. EL ENRIQUECIMIENTO SIN CAUSA EN EL
DERECHO CIVIL. – II. SUEXTENSIÓN AL DERECHO AD-
MINISTRATIVO. A. LA DOCTRINA. B. LA JURISPRUDEN-
CIA. – III. LOS PRONUNCIAMIENTOS COMENTADOS. A.
“CASE C. GOBIE RNO DE LA CIUDAD DE BUENOS
AIRES”. B. “IATASA (INGENIERÍA Y ASISTENCIA TÉC-
NICA ARGENTINA S.A.) C. MUNICIPALIDAD DE LA CIU-
DAD DE BUENOS AIRES” (DEL 19-10-10). – IV. UNA
CONCLUSIÓN CRÍTICA.
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El enriquecimiento sin causa en el derecho
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H=:SEI9G9M5F7– Carlos S. Fayt. – Elena I.
Highton de Nolasco. – Carmen M. Argibay. – En-
rique S. Petracchi.
Dos pronunciamientos de la Corte Suprema
relacionados con el enriquecimiento
sin causa en la contratación pública
102  8   
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;I=9BH9GHF565>CGDI6@=758CG9B$* 'Los contratos
administrativos y el enriquecimiento sin causaDCF$-*
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frente al fenómeno de la corrupción. El delito de enriqueci-
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El elemento “causa” como c atalizador d e la
transparencia en la contratación pública. Su reflejo en el de-
creto 893/12DCF1$O& & a ,'%+!&! 8=5F=CBY
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II
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=ADCFH989@CEI9G9896=9F5F9GH=HI=FD5F5evitar
que la comuna se enriquezca a expensas del
patrimonio del particular sin c ompensación al-
guna”.
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5D@=75FCB8=F97H5A9BH9@58C7HF=B589\!B;9B=9FS5
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III
Los pronunciamientos comentados
A. “CASE c. Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos
Aires”
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B. “IATASA (Ingeniería y Asistencia Técnica
Argentina S.A.) c. Municipalidad de la Ciudad
de Buenos Aires” (del 19-10-10)
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IV
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